Disclaimer - I am not familiar with the Cormen book so I'm not quite sure what you're looking for.
I'm a huge fan of "A Digital Signal Processing Primer" by Ken Steiglitz. It introduces DSP concepts like sampling, as well as simple filtering implementations, without relying just on math for explanation. Cookbook equivalent: You know how to boil water on a stove, but you're nervous about the rest.
A more advanced book, more of a practitioner's handbook than a text, is "Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing" by Lawrence Rabiner and Bernard Gold. Their explanation of the overlap-save FFT technique for convolution, in particular, is the best I've ever come across. Cookbook equivalent: Maybe Joy of Cooking, maybe the Cordon Bleu tome.
And "Telecommunications Breakdown" by Richard Johnson and William Sethares is great for taking some DSP concepts and bringing them to life by implementing a radio in software. Cookbook equivalent: A tour through a specific cuisine, and explains what "braising" is along the way.
Hope these are of use to you!