You'll never be able to verify the fix without identifying the root cause and coming up with a reliable way to reproduce the bug.
For identifying the root cause: If your platform allows it, hook some post-mortem debugging into the problem.
For example, on Windows, get your code to create a minidump file (core dump on Unix) when it encounters this problem. You can then get the customer (or WinQual, on Windows) to send you this file. This should give you more information about how your code's gone wrong on the production system.
But without that, you'll still need to come up with a reliable way to reproduce the bug. Otherwise you'll never be able to verify that it's fixed.
Even with all of this information, you might end up fixing a bug that looks like, but isn't, the one that the customer is seeing.